EUROPE | WHAT REALLY HAPPENED

EUROPE

Mar 16 13:51

Sweden's Jews still face threat says Obama team

The situation for Jews in Sweden has improved, but there is still cause for concern, said President Obama's special envoy against anti-Semitism, Ira Forman, during a high profile visit to Malmö on Monday.

Mar 16 13:27

Italian police: 'Isis flag' turned out to be jacket in tree

Police called to investigate an alleged Isis flag hanging outside an apartment building in Italy made a surprise discovery, finding what they feared may be extremist propaganda was, in fact, a resident’s washing put out to dry.

Mar 16 13:13

Italy: Appeal for calm after murder by immigrant

The murder has caused a surge in anti-immigrant sentiment, led by far-right Northern League leader Matteo Salvini. The politician has called for a class action against Prime Minister Matteo Renzi and his deputy Angelino Alfano for the government’s immigrant rescue programme, Mare Nostrum.

Mar 16 13:08

BEX Alert: Jihadi cell threat to Spanish royal family

A jihadist cell that was ready to launch an attack on Spain before being dismantled by police last week had plans to target King Felipe VI, it has emerged.

Mar 16 13:02

Greek exit mooted by German finance minister

German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble said Friday a disorderly Greek exit from the eurozone could not be excluded if Athens fails to reach a deal with its international creditors.

Mar 16 10:29

Euro Crash

Mar 16 06:25

In its Desperation, Scandal-Riddled Spanish Government Criminalizes Solidarity Among Citizens

On Tuesday, March 10, 19 Spanish citizens were rounded up in dawn raids by the Madrid police. They are accused of committing a crime against the Spanish state. That crime? Trying to prevent, through passive, non-violent resistance, the forced eviction of a local resident. If found guilty, the suspects could face crippling fines.

Welcome to Rajoy’s Spain, where helping out your neighbor in his or her hour of need is now an administrative crime.

Mar 16 05:55

Shock: Germany Mulls Cyprus Solution to Solve Grexit?

Dominant Social Theme: Banks need to be bailed out? Take the funds from their depositors. Simple enough ...

Free-Market Analysis: Now the Cyprus episode begins to become clearer. What the EU needed was a precedent, and apparently Cyprus sufficed.

Mar 16 02:23

Europe’s Debt: Lies and Myths

Myths are dangerous precisely because they rely more on cultural memory and prejudice than facts, and behind the current crisis between Greece and the European Union (EU) lays a fable that bears little relationship to why Athens and a number of other countries in the 28-member organization find themselves in deep distress.

Mar 15 17:30

The Austrian Black Swan Claims Its First Foreign Casualty: German Duesselhyp Collapses, To Be Bailed Out

Moments ago we got confirmation that the next domino from the appearance of the Austrian black swan has tipped over, following a Reuters report that Germany's deposit protection fund will take over the property lender Duesseldorfer Hypothekenbank AG (DuesselHyp), which has "run into problems" due to its exposure to Austrian lender Hypo Alpe Adria's "bad bank" Heta.

Mar 15 16:12

An EU Army to face Russia? Who do you think you are kidding, Mr Juncker?

Nigel Farage speaking in the European Parliament in Strasbourg on EU Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker’s plans for an EU army, 11 March 2015.

Mar 15 14:20

Russians Have Had Enough of the West

The post-modernist west is unable to comprehend a self-confident modern Russia.

Mar 15 11:42

The BAD War: Chronology of Events, from 1848 - WWII

Mike King is a private investigative journalist and researcher based in the New York City area. A 1987 graduate of Rutgers University, King's subsequent 27 year career in Marketing & Advertising has equipped him with a unique perspective when it comes to understanding how "public opinion" is scientifically manufactured.

Mar 15 09:42

'Mistrust Is Growing': European Leaders Blast GOP Senators for Letter to Iran

An open letter to Iranian leaders from 47 Republican senators has provoked sharp rebuke from European countries that are party to the nuclear talks.

Germany's foreign minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier blasted the U.S. GOP senators on Thursday, telling journalists, "This is not just an issue of American domestic politics, but it affects the negotiations we are holding in Geneva."

"Obviously mistrust is growing," he added.

Mar 15 09:41

Ukraine plans joint military exercises with U.S., Poland for 2015

President Petro Poroshenko has introduced a bill to parliament to let foreign armed forces into Ukraine to take part in five joint exercises with Ukrainian forces.

According to the draft law, Ukraine plans three Ukrainian-American command post exercises, Fearless Guardian 2015, Sea Breeze 2015 and Saber Guardian/Rapid Trident 2015, and two Ukrainian-Polish exercises, Secure Skies 2015, and Law and Order 2015, for this year.

Mar 15 08:12

In its Desperation, Scandal-Riddled Spanish Government Criminalizes Solidarity Among Citizens

On Tuesday, March 10, 19 Spanish citizens were rounded up in dawn raids by the Madrid police. They are accused of committing a crime against the Spanish state. That crime? Trying to prevent, through passive, non-violent resistance, the forced eviction of a local resident. If found guilty, the suspects could face crippling fines.

Welcome to Rajoy’s Spain, where helping out your neighbor in his or her hour of need is now an administrative crime.

A Not-So-Silent Tragedy

In most countries that have experienced foreclosure epidemics, the eviction of neighbors and local residents is usually a quiet, if not silent, tragedy. Often people don’t realize that their neighbors have gone until hours, days or even weeks have passed. Some may never even notice.

Mar 14 22:53

Poroshenko: 11 EU states struck deal with Ukraine to deliver weapons, including lethal

Ukraine has concluded deals with eleven countries of the EU on delivery of weapons, including lethal, President Petro Poroshenko told the country’s TV. He, however, didn’t mention which countries will provide ‘defensive aid’ to Kiev.

“The Head of State has informed that Ukraine had contracts with a series of the EU countries on the supply of armament, inter alia, lethal one. He has reminded that official embargo of the EU on the supply of weapons to Ukraine had been abolished,” said a statement on Poroshenko’s official website, citing his interview to the TV channel "1+1".

According to Poroshenko’s statement, he is confident that EU and USA will support Ukraine with weapons if needed.

Mar 14 10:32

Guns on Parade: U.S. Army sending armored convoy 1,100 miles through Europe

The convoy is "a highly visible demonstration of U.S, commitment to its NATO allies and demonstrating NATO's ability to move military forces freely across allied borders in close cooperation," U.S. Army Europe spokesman Lt. Col. Craig Childs, said in a statement, according to the Stripes report. The troops and vehicles involved will be moving from training exercises conducted as part of Operation Atlantic Resolve in Estonia, Lithuania and Poland, the report said. They'll move through Latvia and the Czech Republic as they make their way to Vilseck, Germany, about a 40 miles drive from the Czech border.

Mar 14 09:31

Officials deny report that EU blocked nuclear fuel deal

Russian, Hungarian and EU officials on Friday denied a Financial Times report that claimed that the EU blocked a multibillion deal under which Hungary is to buy nuclear fuel rods from Russia for its Paks nuclear power plant.

Mar 14 09:04

Greece: what now?

The arrogant outcry of many anti-euro people about a “great betrayal” concerning to the agreement signed by Tsipras government is irritating and risible.

They just take as valid the narration of pro-euro mass media which in their turn repeat and amplify the German version, that is intended to prove that the Greek government signed the terms of unilateral surrender. But it is not just that! It’s evident that they are so much blind with their conceit to point the finger at the victims and not at the torturers. The moral of the story is that, in their opinion, Euro-Germany scored a massive victory and, furthermore, the Greek matter would be closed, deleted.

Probably things are not like that.

Mar 14 08:26

Italy, Spain to follow if Greece exits eurozone, says Greek Defense Minister

Greece's Defence Minister Panos Kammenos has said his country's exit from the eurozone could be followed by Italy, Spain and even Germany. Kammenos' interview comes amid lack of progress in Greece's bailout plan.

Mar 14 08:19

US, UK, and China battle over which bank gets to exploit Third World

US officials are currently in an uproar over the United Kingdom’s decision to become a founding member of the new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. This is a decision that forecasts a massive change in the world economy. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank is setting itself up to be direct competition to the World Bank and IMF. These two little known institutions truly cement the West as the dominant powers in the world. The policies of the new bank will be in direct opposition to those of the World Bank.

Mar 14 06:58

Currency Wars: UK support for China-backed Asia bank prompts US concern

The US has expressed concern over the UK's bid to become a founding member of a Chinese-backed development bank. The UK is the first big Western economy to apply for membership of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

Mar 13 15:14

NATO's Massive Show of Force in Latvia - What's the Endgame?

The end goal of the EU/NATO saber-rattling targeting Russia, he said, is to "reinforce the existing supranational institutions of the West – the European Union, on the one hand, and the transatlantic bond on the other." Russia as the enemy will give some meaning and legitimacy to the ongoing maintenance of the European Union and NATO. The EU leadership is firmly behind this project, he added, but it remains to be seen how much of the population supports such a gambit.

Mar 13 13:58

Majority of Germans in favour of 'Grexit'

In a survey conducted by the Politbarometer of the Mannheim Research Group, 52% of respondents said that Greece shouldn’t stay in the eurozone, 40% said Greece should, and 8% weren’t sure.

Mar 13 13:16

Entire board of Spanish bank resigns amid money laundering probe

The entire board of Spain’s Banco de Madrid has resigned after its Andorran owner was accused by the US of money laundering for clients from China, Russia and Venezuela.

Mar 13 13:05

Kiev Admits Existence of Contracts on Delivery of Lethal Weapons From EU

Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko announced that Ukraine has contracts with a range of EU countries on delivery of weaponry, including lethal.

Mar 13 07:40

Europe Has A Modest Proposal For Greece; "Don't Pay Wages For One Or Two Months"

The Greek media is ablaze with just what Europe's proposed solution to this issue may be. As Protothema and Capital report, the Troika proposed that Athens halt the payment of salaries and pensions for one to two months. This, according to Europe, would promptly tackle the problem of liquidity and find a solution to Greek problem of how to pay back bailout loan tranches to creditors when suffering from liquidity problems.

Mar 13 07:38

Germany says Greece may face exit from eurozone

Germany’s finance minister says Greece may leave the 19-member eurozone if the administration in Athens fails to clinch a final agreement with its international creditors.

Speaking in an exclusive interview with German-language Austrian public broadcaster, ORF, on Friday, Wolfgang Schaeuble said the possibility of Greece’s departure from the European Union’s monetary bloc cannot be excluded.

“To the extent that Greece is solely responsible and decides what is to happen, and we don’t know exactly what Greek leaders are doing, we can’t exclude it,” he said in reference to an exit from the eurozone by the Greek government.

“Europe is ready to help Greece, but Greece must let itself be helped,” Schaeuble stated.

Mar 13 07:06

Nordics close Russia hub over 'spying' claim

After accusations from Russia that its offices in Saint Petersburg and Kaliningrad were filled with ‘foreign agents’, the Nordic Council of Ministers decided on Wednesday to shut its offices down in protest.

Mar 13 06:56

How Iran and the US intersect in “Syraq”

The self-described “Don’t Do Stupid Stuff” Obama administration, with its rambling foreign policy, is driving the real Masters of the Universe who control the current world system absolutely crazy.

A cliffhanger debate will take place this Wednesday at the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Picture Secretary of State John Kerry, new Pentagon supremo Ashton Carter, and Joint Chiefs Chairman Gen. Martin Dempsey all testifying in the same room.

The meat of the matter: the House of Cards, sorry, US Congress mulling over what’s the real deal behind the Obama administration’s proposal to use “military force” in Syria, and whether to impose a no-fly zone to protect Syrian “rebels”.

Mar 13 06:24

Iceland drops application to join European Union

Iceland says it has informed the European Union (EU) that it is no longer interested in pursuing a bid to join the 28-nation bloc.

Webmaster's Commentary: 

"Well then, we'll just overthrow your government and MAKE you join like we did Ukraine!!!" -- Official White Horse Souse

Mar 13 06:02

European Central Bank ‘asphyxiating’ Greece - Varoufakis

Greek Finance Minister Yanis Varoufakis said the European Central Bank is holding cash-strapped Athens in a choke-hold in order to push through negotiations on the country’s bailout program.

The European Central Bank has essentially cut Greece off from short-term lending, which makes borrowing more expensive for the already heavily-indebted nation. If Athens doesn’t strike a deal with Brussels, they will lose emergency assistance funding from the ECB.

Mar 13 05:44

Spain puts 'gag' on freedom of expression as senate approves security law

The Spanish senate has voted to push forward with controversial changes to the country’s public security laws, cracking down on Spaniards’ rights of freedom of assembly and expression despite opposition from activists and human rights groups.

Mar 13 05:40

EU Member States Struggle to Agree on Renewing Sanctions in Russia

The European Union's 28 governments have not reached an agreement on renewing economic sanctions on Russia that expire in July, a senior EU official said Friday.

Mar 13 04:19

NATO’s Shadow of Nazi Operation Barbarossa

Russia can perceive, rightly, the continuum of aggression.

NATO’s Operation Atlantic Resolve paced ahead this week with the latest arrival of more US military forces in the Baltic region.

Under the guise of defending eastern Europe from «Russian aggression», more than 100 Abrams tanks and Bradley armoured personnel carriers rolled into Latvia. Last month, a similar motorised display of military support was deployed in Estonia – in the town of Narva – with American flags flown by the US Army’s Second Calvary Regiment just 300 metres from the Russian border.

Mar 13 02:21

NATO’s Shadow of Nazi Operation Barbarossa

For Russia, the menacing military encirclement of Operation Atlantic Resolve has profoundly bad resonance with the past, and for good reasoning. Operation Barbarossa – only 74 years ago – is seared into Russian consciousness through immense human suffering. Russia was then on the brink of extirpation and was only saved by the heroic sacrifice of millions of its people; any nation would never allow such a danger to ever come close again.

Mar 13 02:16

EU moves to block €12bn Russia-Hungary nuclear deal

The European Union is opposing a multibillion deal under which Hungary is to buy nuclear fuel rods from Russia for its old Paks nuclear power plant. Some media claim the deal has been blocked, though Budapest denies the reports.

Mar 12 17:04

Iceland Drops Bid For EU Membership

Mar 12 17:03

Germans Furious After Varoufakis/Tsipras Admit "Greece Will Never Repay Its Debts"

The Greco-Germanic war of words continues... Having pissed off The Greeks with his "Troika" remarks, Germany's Schaeuble went on today to more ad hominum attacks by reportedly calling the Greek FinMin "foolishly naive." The Greek ambassador has 'officially' complained to "friend and ally" Germany about the personal insult. But The Greeks had the last laugh, as first Varoufakis and then Tsipras explained respectively that "Greece would never pay back its debts," and "Greece cannot pretend its debt burden is sustainable." The German response, via tabloid Bild, "there must be an end to this madness. Europe must not be made to look stupid."

Mar 12 15:23

How Central Banks Harness Governments - The ECB’s Noose Around Greece

Remember when the infamous Goldman Sachs delivered a thinly-veiled threat to the Greek Parliament in December, warning them to elect a pro-austerity prime minister or risk having central bank liquidity cut off to their banks? It seems the European Central Bank (headed by Mario Draghi, former managing director of Goldman Sachs International) has now made good on the threat.

Mar 12 14:17

Iceland announces it is dropping bid to join EU

Iceland has dropped its bid to join the European Union, the Foreign Ministry in Reykjavik says. The announcement follows pledges made by the country’s euro-skeptic government since winning the 2013 election.

Mar 12 12:03

EU leaders unlikely to tighten Russia sanctions at meeting next week: diplomats

European Union leaders are unlikely to tighten sanctions on Russia when they meet next week but will haggle over whether they need to act now to prolong economic sanctions on Russia expiring in July, diplomats said on Thursday.

Mar 12 11:10

Are Alarm Bells Ringing Over Greece's Pivot To Russia?

While this Russian pivot meme was the stuff of conspiracy theorists just weeks ago, The BBC is now asking directly, "could Europe lose Greece to Russia?" and with more Greeks positive on Russia (61%) than Europe (23%), it should not shock anyone.

Mar 12 10:07

The last great run for the U.S. dollar, death of the Euro and $74T in currency derivatives at risk

Are we on the verge of an unprecedented global currency crisis?

Mar 12 07:53

Greece threatens to seize property, land and businesses belonging to Germany if Angela Merkel does not agree to pay compensation for WWII occupation

Greece is threatening to seize property, land and businesses belonging to Germany if Berlin does not agree to compensate it for the Nazi occupation of the Second World War.

Prime minister Alexis Tsipras has demanded Germany pay more than £112billion in reparations.

He said previous payments did not cover demands for destroyed infrastructure, compensation for war crimes and the return of a forced loan to the Nazis.

Mar 12 07:01

Israel demolishes EU-funded shelter in East Jerusalem

28-nation bloc condemns bulldozing of structure for Bedouin community near Issawiya, which was empty at the time.

Mar 12 06:44

Sweden offers the Kiev junta a $100 million loan

This is, of course, over and above the four-year aid package which would see the Kiev regime receive $40 billion in loans from western sources, $17.5 billion of which will come from the ever-charitable IMF.

Mar 12 05:24

Removing Israel from American politics

It is writing such as this, which illustrates and illuminates the extent of Zionist infiltration in the "Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave," which will drive home to the "American" public what has happened to their "dream, which may eventually stir them to action of some sort to bring it to an end... if anything will!

It is certainly past time to push back against an organization that is brazenly promoting the interests of a foreign government at the expense of the American people.

Shutting Down AIPAC

I would like to concentrate on two issues. First is the nature of the special relationship between Israel and the United States and second is the role of the Israel Lobby and most particularly AIPAC in shaping that relationship.

Mar 12 05:19

Iran Foreign Minister: We Believe We Are ‘Very Close’ to Nuke Deal

Ian’s Foreign Minister, Mohammad Javad Zarif, spoke with NBC News’ Ann Curry Wednesday (March 5th 2015).

Iran's FM: I read the American constitution, I believe the– executive has the prerogative over foreign policy and for any foreign government, it has to lead with the executive. That’s the only way you can have international affairs. So I will accept the commitment of the U.S. government, the U.S. administration, about what– going to do. And I will– I mean if they have an agreement, I will hold them accountable.

ANN CURRY: Where’s the area of the major stumbling block?

Mar 12 05:15

Nuland’s Mastery of Ukraine Propaganda

So, did Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Nuland mislead Congress or just play a propaganda game, asks Robert Parry.

An early skill learned by Official Washington’s neoconservatives, when they were cutting their teeth inside the U.S. government in the 1980s, was how to frame their arguments in the most propagandistic way, so anyone who dared to disagree with any aspect of the presentation seemed unpatriotic or crazy.

During my years at The Associated Press and Newsweek, I dealt with a number of now prominent neocons who were just starting out and mastering these techniques at the knee of top CIA psychological warfare specialist Walter Raymond Jr., who had been transferred to President Ronald Reagan’s National Security Council staff where Raymond oversaw inter-agency task forces that pushed Reagan’s hard-line agenda in Central America and elsewhere.

Mar 11 18:08

Saving World Heritage – the West’s New R2P Pretext

The ideological arsenal of pretexts for US military interventions are depleted, redundant, spent or thoroughly disgraced.

Is the defence of world heritage sites in Iraq the new «responsibility to protect» (R2P) doctrine to justify Western intervention in the geo-strategically important region? The timing coincides with renewed admonitions from the United States and Saudi Arabia for a coalition of ground forces to defeat the Islamic State network in Iraq and Syria – and just when Iraqi and Syrian forces appear to be decisively pushing back the extremists in both countries.

The US and its Western allies have long used the doctrine of «responsibility to protect» or «R2P» as a flimsy pretext for military intervention.They found success with various tropes, including the «War on Terror», the elimination of «weapons of mass destruction», and the Responsibility to Protect» human rights.

Mar 11 18:03

Getting Past the Issue of Being Jewish

In the United States we may be approaching a tipping point in the struggle against Zionist racism and Israeli oppression.

The struggle is against racism, discrimination, oppression, occupation and illegal colonization because they are evils no matter who perpetrates them.

The Israeli case has to be prioritized because Israel and its Zionist allies have bought and bullied our own government and political parties in a corrupting manner.

Mar 11 17:52

Nigel Farage Rages At Juncker's "European Army" Proposal

"We ourselves in the European Union provoked the conflict through our territorial expansionism in the Ukraine. We poked the Russian bear with a stick, and unsurprisingly, Putin reacted. But this now is to be used as an opportunity to build a European army... And Mr. Juncker said, we must convey to Russia that we are serious. Who do you think you are kidding, Mr. Juncker?"

Mar 11 17:05

Grexit Guaranteed!

Mar 11 16:40

The Italian village buried under EIGHT FEET of snow in one day (and it's not even in the mountains)

A record has been set for the most snowfall in a day after a tiny Italian village was dumped with 100 inches in 18 hours - forcing residents to ski between houses and climb out of second-floor windows.

The village of Capracotta, located in central Italy around 125 miles east of Rome, was hit with the polar blast on March 5 in a remarkable blizzard aggravated by powerful wind gusts.

Breaking a 1921 record set in Silver Lake, Colorado, of 76 inches, incredible photos from inside the village show walls of snow carved out from the fronts of doors and shops.

Mar 11 16:35

EU to lift ban on importing chicken from the U.S. which has been washed in controversial acid disinfectant

The EU is set to lift a ban on imports of chicken from the United States which are washed with a suspect acid disinfectant.

American producers routinely wash raw chicken following slaughter with a substance called peroxyacetic acid (PAA) to remove harmful bacteria.

The practice has been banned in Britain and Europe for many years because of a determination to remove harmful bugs at source, rather than using disinfectants to clean up carcasses.

There are also concerns that reliance on these washes could put consumers at risk by playing a part in the creation of superbugs.

However, the European Commission has signalled that it plans to lift the ban following pressure from the American government and US chicken producers.

Mar 11 15:28

The Last, Great Run For The U.S. Dollar, The Death Of The Euro And 74 Trillion In Currency Derivatives At Risk

Are we on the verge of an unprecedented global currency crisis? On Tuesday, the euro briefly fell below $1.07 for the first time in almost a dozen years. And the U.S. dollar continues to surge against almost every other major global currency. The U.S. dollar index has now risen an astounding 23 percent in just the last eight months. That is the fastest pace that the U.S. dollar has risen since 1981. You might be tempted to think that a stronger U.S. dollar is good news, but it isn’t. A strong U.S. dollar hurts U.S. exports, thus harming our economy. In addition, a weak U.S. dollar has fueled tremendous expansion in emerging markets around the planet over the past decade or so. When the dollar becomes a lot stronger, it becomes much more difficult for those countries to borrow more money and repay old debts. In other words, the emerging market “boom” is about to become a bust...

Mar 11 12:06

Traders at Barclays and Deutsche Bank questioned over Euribor rigging

The UK's Serious Fraud Office (SFO) is questioning former traders from Barclays and Deutsche Bank over possible Euribor rigging.

Mar 11 10:50

E.C.B. Bond-Buying Program Is ‘Pointing in the Right Direction,’ Draghi Says

FRANKFURT — The president of the European Central Bank defended its fledgling asset purchase program before a skeptical audience on Wednesday, saying the benefits were filtering down to consumers and businesses while protecting the rest of the eurozone from the political turmoil in Greece.

(*"Vertrauen Sie mir , ich bin ein Banker !")

Mar 11 09:15

Greece threatens to seize property, land and businesses belonging to Germany if Angela Merkel does not agree to pay compensation for WWII occupation

Greece is threatening to seize property, land and businesses belonging to Germany if Berlin does not agree to compensation for Nazi wartime occupation.

The threat is seen as the latest stake-raising in the standoff between Athens and the EU over renegotiating Greek debt because of the euro crisis.

Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras said that Germany owes his country war compensation worth hundreds of billions of euros.

Mar 11 07:53

The euro’s tumbling _ here’s why

The main reason is the European Central Bank has not only cut interest rates but also started creating more euros to put into the financial system.

The ECB had been reluctant to do so for years, but in 2014 it changed course. As policymakers faced the prospect of minimal growth and falling prices, which can further weigh on an economy, it cut its main interest rate in September to 0.05 percent. The move hit the euro by reducing the potential returns on investments in the eurozone.

As that proved insufficient to turn the eurozone around, the ECB has started buying government bonds in the markets with newly-created money.

Mar 11 06:41

Troops and hardware from 3rd Infantry Division heading to Eastern Europe

Thousands of troops and major hardware from the Army’s 3rd Infantry Division are heading to the Baltic region to reassure NATO allies fearful of Russian aggression, according to the Pentagon.

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