A beginner's guide to enriching uranium | WHAT REALLY HAPPENED

A beginner's guide to enriching uranium

In May last year, President Donald Trump unilaterally pulled the US out of the multinational deal and reimposed severe sanctions, which further crippled Iran's economy and removed many of Tehran's incentives for compliance.

The European signatories to the deal have since struggled to keep the JCPOA alive. Last week, France, Germany and the United Kingdom confirmed that a new financial mechanism designed to enable European and Iranian companies to trade without any direct financial flows - thus bypassing the US financial system - was operational.

But the workaround vehicle called INSTEX (Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges) can only help European companies avoid US sanctions if they are sending humanitarian goods and aid products and services to Iran.

Without including oil in INSTEX, the Europeans' solution is severely limited. Frustrated by the US reneging on the deal, and Europe's apparent inability to stand up to Trump, Iran has declared it would abandon some of its commitments, too.

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